Serge Poliakoff (January 8, 1900 – October 12, 1969) was a Russian-born French modernist painter belonging to the 'New' Ecole de Paris (Tachisme).
After studying in Moscow and London, he left Russia in 1918 and moved to Sofia, Belgrade, Vienna, and Berlin until 1923, when he decided to stay in Paris. Robert Delaunay and Wassily Kandinsky led him towards Abstractionism. Poliakoff exhibited his first abstract painting in 1938 at his premiere at the Salon des Indépendants; he received the Kandinsky Prize in 1947. Solo exhibitions were held in New York, Brussels, Tel Aviv, and Milan, among others. After a heart attack in 1965, he began working on smaller canvases and lithographs. Poliakoff died on 12 October, 1969, in Paris.